Acetyl-l-carnitine is a natural derivative of amino-acids, or building blocks for proteins, that helps the body turn fat into energy. It is specifically required for the transport of lipids into the specialized sub-units within the cells called mitochondria, for break-down and power-generation. Normally, the body can make all the carnitine it needs, however tissues with high rates of fuel consumption such as muscle, heart and brain, sometimes cannot get the right amount they require, and so supplementation may be necessary1.
In light of its key roles in energy supply, acetyl-l-carnitine is essential in helping cells stay active and healthy. It has, therefore, been proposed as an adjunct to treat a variety of health conditions including heart attack and cardiac failure2. Some men even use acetyl-l-carnitine for symptoms of “male menopause” and infertility3.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark feature in a number of neuro-degenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, and is characterized by insufficient energy production within the brain. Because of its ability to confer improved mitochondrial activity, acetyl-l-carnitine has various neuro-protective properties4,5. It is also a powerful anti-oxidant, has anti-depressive effects, helps low mood and thinking problems related to alcoholism, and is capable of reducing nerve pain due to diabetes (neuropathy)6-9.
Acetyl-l-carnitine has comparable chemical structure to a neuro-transmitter called acetyl-choline which is a key messenger that influences brain function and plays a pivotal role in memory10,11. Given this specific similarity, acetyl-l-carnitine can help improve learning capacity even in the elderly12. Because the cholinergic system is substantially impaired in Alzheimer’s disease, and in light that acetyl-l-carnitine attenuates age-related mitochondrial decay4,5, several studies report considerable medical benefits in cognitive impairment and dementia13-17. It can not only improve the clinical features of memory loss and relieve depression related to senility and neuro-degeneration, but when administered as a component of a vitamin formula, acetyl-l-carnitine can also delay cognitive decline in both early and late-stages of Alzheimer’s disease, thereby slowing down the progression of dementia18-22.
And the good news is that all of these positive effects are encapsulated in MEMEMTUM for you.
- Jones LL, McDonald DA, Borum PR. Acylcarnitines: role in brain. Prog. Lipid Res. 2010; 49(1): 61-75.
- Gasparetto A, Corbucci GG, De Blasi RA, Antonelli M, Bagiella E, D’Iddio S, Trevisani C. Influence of acetyl-l-carnitine infusion on haemodynamic parameters and survival of circulatory-shock patients. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Res. 1991; 11(2): 83-92.
- Mongioi L, Calogero AE, Vicari E, Condorelli RA, Russo GI, Privitera S, Morgia G, La Vignera S. The role of carnitine in male infertility. Andrology 2016; 4(5): 800-807.
- Rosca MG, Lemieux H, Hoppel CL. Mitochondria in the elderly: is acetylcarnitine a rejuvenator? Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 2009; 61(14): 1332-1342.
- Ames BN, Liu J. Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging with acetylcarnitine. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 2004; 1033: 108-116.
- Traina G. The neurobiology of acetyl-l-carnitine. Front. Biosci. 2016; 21: 1314-1329.
- Martinotti G, Andreoli S, Reina D, Di Nicola M, Ortolani I, Tedeschi D, Fanella F, Pozzi G, Iannoni E, D’Iddio S, Prof LJ. Acetyl-l-carnitine in the treatment of anhedonia, melancholic and negative symptoms in alcohol dependent subjects. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2011;35(4): 953-958.
- Tempesta E, Troncon R, Janiri L, Colusso L, Riscica P, Saraceni G, Gesmundo E, Calvani M, Benedetti N, Pola P. Role of acetyl-l-carnitine in the treatment of cognitive deficit in chronic alcoholism. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Res. 1990; 10(1-2): 101-107.
- Onofrj M, Ciccocioppo F, Varanese S, di Muzio A, Calvani M, Chiechio S, Osio M, Thomas A. Acetyl-l-carnitine: from a biological curiosity to a drug for the peripheral nervous system and beyond. Expert Rev. Neurother. 2013; 13(8): 925-936.
- Reed KW, Murray WJ, Roche EB. Acetylcarnitine and cholinergic receptors. J. Pharm. Sci. 1980; 69(9): 1065-1068.
- White HL, Scates PW. Acetyl-L-carnitine as a precursor of acetylcholine. Neurochem. Res. 1990; 15(6): 597-601.
- Kobayashi S, Iwamoto M, Kon K, Waki H, Ando S, Tanaka Y. Acetyl-l-carnitine improves aged brain function. Geriatr. Gerontol. Int. 2010;10Suppl1: S99-106.
- Carta A, Calvani M, Bravi D, Bhuachalla SN. Acetyl-L-carnitine and Alzheimer’s disease: pharmacological considerations beyond the cholinergic sphere. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1993; 695: 324-326.
- Passeri M, Cucinotta D, Bonati PA, Iannuccelli M, Parnetti L, Senin U. Acetyl-l-carnitine in the treatment of mildly demented elderly patients. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Res. 1990; 10(1-2): 75-79.
- Pettegrew JW, Klunk WE, Panchalingam K, Kanfer JN, McClure RJ. Clinical and neurochemical effects of acetyl-l-carnitine in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol. Aging 1995; 16(1): 1-4.
- Sano M, Bell K, Cote L, Dooneief G, Lawton A, Legler L, Marder K, Naini A, Stern Y, Mayeux R. Double-blind parallel design pilot study of acetyl-levocarnitine in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Arch. Neurol. 1992; 49(11): 1137-1141.
- Bianchetti A, Rozzini R, Trabucchi M. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer’s disease patients unresponsive to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 2003; 19(4): 350-353.
- Bigford GE, Del Rossi G. Supplemental substances derived from foods as adjunctive therapeutic agents for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and disorders. Adv. Nutr. 2014; 5(4): 394-403.
- Chan A, Paskavitz J, Remington R, Rasmussen S, Shea TB. Efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation for early-stage Alzheimer’s disease: a 1-year, open-label pilot study with a 16-month caregiver extension. Am. J. Alzheimers Dis. Other Demen. 2008-2009; 23(6): 571-585.
- Remington R, Chan A, Paskavitz J, Shea TB. Efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation for moderate-stage to later-stage Alzheimer’s disease: a placebo-controlled pilot study. Am. J. Alzheimers Dis. Other Demen. 2009; 24(1): 27-33.
- Chan A, Remington R, Kotyla E, Lepore A, Zemianek J, Shea TB. A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia. J. Nutr. Health Aging 2010; 14(3): 224-230.
- Remington R, Bechtel C, Larsen D, Samar A, Page R, Morrell C, Shea TB. Maintenance of cognitive performance and mood for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease following consumption of a nutraceutical formulation: a one-year, open-label study. J. Alzheimers Dis. 2016; 51(4): 991-995.